Master of Laws

The Master of Laws is an advanced academic degree, pursued by those holding a professional law degree, and is commonly abbreviated LL.M. (also LLM or LL.M.) from its Latin name, Legum Magister. (For female students, the less common variant Legum Magistra may also be used.) The University of Oxford names its taught masters of laws B.C.L. (Bachelor of Civil Law) and MJur (Magister Juris), while the research masters is named either MPhil (Master of Philosophy) or MSt (Master of Studies). To become a lawyer and practice law in most states and countries, a person must first obtain a law degree. While in most common law countries a Bachelor of Laws (or LL.B.) is required, the U.S. requires a professional doctorate, or Juris Doctor, to practice law. If a person wishes to gain specialized knowledge through research in a particular area of law, he or she can continue his or her studies after an LL.B or J.D. in an LL.M. program. The word legum is the genitive plural form of the Latin word lex and means "of the laws". When used in the plural, it signifies a specific body of laws, as opposed to the general collective concept embodied in the word jus, from which the words "juris" and "justice" derive. The highest research degree in law is the S.J.D. (or J.S.D., depending on the institution), and it is equivalent to the Doctor of Philosophy in Law (PhD or DPhil depending on the law school in UK), Doctorat en Droit (in France), or the Doktor der Rechtswissenschaften (Dr.iur.) in Germany. There are also variant doctoral degrees, such as the D.C.L. (Doctor of Civil Law) degree bestowed by McGill University in Montreal. Most schools require an LL.M. before admission to a SJD or a PhD in law degree program. Like the PhD, the SJD degree generally requires a dissertation that is graded (often by two graders), orally defended (by an exam known as Viva) and then often published as a book or series of articles. "Doctor of Laws" (LL.D.) degree in the United States of America is usually an honorary degree. The research doctorate in the field of law in the United States of America is called "Doctor of Juridical Science" or in its Latin expression-"Scientiae Juridicae Doctor" (S.J.D.), which is the most advanced degree in the field of law in the United States of America. International situation Most countries do not require an LL.M. degree to become a lawyer, and most lawyers choose never to obtain one. In fact, the education systems of most countries do not traditionally include LL.M. programs. Historically, the LL.M. degree is an element particular to the education system of English speaking countries, which is based on a distinction between Bachelor's and Master's degrees. Over the past years, however, specialized LL.M. programs have been introduced in many European countries, even where the Bologna process has not yet been fully implemented. Denmark, Sweden, Norway, Greece, Cyprus, Italy and Switzerland require a Master's with an additional two to five years to become a lawyer. In Finland an LL.M. is the standard graduate degree required to practice law. No other qualifications are required. To be allowed to practice law in the Netherlands, one needs an LL.M. degree with a specific (set of) course(s) in litigation law. The Dutch Order of Lawyers (NOVA) require these courses for every potential candidate lawyer who wants to be conditionally written in the district court for three years. After receiving all the diplomas prescribed by NOVA and under supervision of a "patroon" (master), a lawyer is eligible to have his own practice and is unconditionally written in a court for life but he/she will need to continually update his/her knowledge. In Mauritius, to be able to practice as a lawyer, only a relevant degree (not necessarily Law, i.e. Politics or History) and a bar afterwards are required, and the latter can start exercising after that, similar to the UK and France. However, those doing a degree in Law and Management can also become a lawyer, provided that they undertake a conversion course after their degree, and after which their bar. Even an LLM is possible for those students. Types of LL.M. degrees There are a wide range of LL.M. programs available worldwide, allowing students to focus on almost any area of the law. Most universities offer only a small number of LL.M. programs. One of the most popular LL.M. degrees in the United States is tax law, sometimes referred to as an MLT (Master of Laws in Taxation). There is also a parallel course for CPAs (Certified Public Accountants) at Villanova University School of Law's Graduate Tax Program that awards a non-law M.T. (Master of Taxation) degree to CPAs; lawyers (JDs) who participate and graduate from the program are awarded an LL.M. Another developing area is bankruptcy law, banking law or financial services law, and environmental law. Some law schools allow LL.M. students to freely design their own program of study from the Law School's many upper-level courses and seminars, including commercial and corporate, international, constitutional, and human rights law. In Europe LL.M. programs in European law are recently very popular, often referred to as LL.M. Eur (Master of European Law). Other common programs include environmental law, human rights law, commercial law, intellectual property law, information technology law, estate planning (as a sub-specialty of tax), international law, maritime law, litigation and dispute resolution, trial advocacy and insurance law. Some law schools offer innovative LL.M.'s in concentrated courses such as Prosecutorial Sciences. One particular Prosecutorial Sciences program is open only to active prosecutors with at least five years experience. Space and Telecommunications Law is one type of LL.M. offered and is only offered by one school in the United States. Some LL.M. programs, particularly in the United States, and also in China, focus on teaching foreign lawyers the basic legal principles of the host country (a "comparative law" degree). Moreover, some programs are conducted in more than one language, give the students the opportunity to undertake classes in differing languages. Most LL.M. programs require a thesis. Requirements LL.M. programs are usually only open to those students who have first obtained a degree in law. There are exceptions to this but an undergraduate degree or extensive experience in a related field is still required. Full-time LL.M. programs usually last one year and vary in their graduation requirements. Most programs require students to write a thesis. Some programs are research oriented with little classroom time (similar to a M.Phil.), while others require students to take a set number of classes (similar to a taught degree or M.Sc.). LL.M. degrees are often earned by students wishing to develop more concentrated expertise in a particular area of law. Pursuing an LL.M. degree may also allow law students to build a professional network. Some associations provide LL.M. degree holders with structures designed to strengthen their connections among peers and to access a competitive business environment.

Related Degrees

No Information Available

Universities

No Information Available

Content Developerviews:  0

no description   [more]

Content Writer views:  0

no description   [more]

Cabin Crewviews:  0

no description   [more]

Traineeviews:  0

no description   [more]

Traineeviews:  0

no description   [more]

Team Leaderviews:  50

no description   [more]

Sales Managerviews:  37

no description   [more]

Service Associateviews:  34

no description   [more]

Service Manager views:  40

no description   [more]

Sales Associateviews:  38

no description   [more]

Security Officerviews:  97

Security Personnel   [more]

Website/Graphic Designerviews:  139

Design or create websites, graphics to meet specific commercial or promotional needs   [more]

Journalistviews:  65

A journalist collects, writes and distributes news and other information. A journalist's work is referred to as journalism.   [more]

Television producerviews:  79

The primary role of a television producer is to oversee all aspects of video production, ranging from show idea development and cast hiring to shoot supervision and fact-checking. It is often the producer who is responsible for the television sho ...   [more]

Administration - Management Traineeviews:  179

Performing internship within one or several departments   [more]

Credit Risk - Analystviews:  128

Evaluate individual credit applications for final approval from Credit Risk Manager   [more]

Legal Staffviews:  239

Subject matter expert in one field.   [more]

Driverviews:  218

Driver for senior representatives or administrative tasks   [more]

Portfolio Managerviews:  204

Senior Portfolio Analyst to support management team in translation of reports into actionable decisions.   [more]

Portfolio Analystviews:  172

Evaluation of credit portfolio to identify short and long term trends.   [more]

View More

Cross Cultural Trainingviews:  368

Cross cultural training aims to develop awareness between people where a common cultural framework does not exist.   [more]

Neuro-linguistic programming views:  224

Neuro-linguistic programming (NLP) is an approach to communication, personal development and psychotherapy. The title refers to a stated connection between the neurological processes, language and ...   [more]

Conflict Management views:  274

Conflict management involves implementing strategies to limit the negative aspects of conflict and to increase the positive aspects of conflict at a level equal to or higher than where the conflic ...   [more]

Customer Service views:  345

Skills to serve customers before, during and after a purchase.   [more]

Telephone Skillsviews:  359

Refers to telephone etiquettes and skills to bring about sales or get the desired outcome.   [more]

Business Writing views:  329

Business Writing refers to the writing assignment for business purposes. It is usually more formal than conversations and general writing.   [more]

Time Management views:  241

The act or process of planning and exercising conscious control over the amount of time spent on specific activities, especially to increase effectiveness, efficiency or productivity.   [more]

Entrepreneurshipviews:  277

Business acumen used to transform innovations into economic goods   [more]

Negotiation skillsviews:  293

Skills required to reach a point of understanding, resolve conflict, gain advantage in outcome of dialogue between two parties are called negotiation skills.   [more]

Employee engagementviews:  340

Employee engagement or worker engagement is a business management concept. It involves using techniques to further involve employees in the work to further the company's interests.   [more]

Project Management views:  292

Project Management is the discipline of planning, organizing, securing, managing, leading and controlling resources to achieve specific goals.   [more]

Supply Chain Managementviews:  239

Supply Chain Management (SCM) is the management of a network of interconnected businesses involved in the provision of product and service packages required by the end customers in a supply chain. ...   [more]

Business Etiquetteviews:  390

Business etiquette is the way you handle yourself in a business and social environment . It can range from meetings with the boss to meetings with clients and customers - and knowing the right thi ...   [more]

Corporate Social Responsibiltyviews:  297

CSR policy functions as a built-in, self-regulating mechanism whereby a business monitors and ensures its active compliance with the spirit of the law, ethical standards, and international norms. ...   [more]

Creative Leadershipviews:  297

Creative leadership is the ability to think beyond the conventional leadership methods and strategies to lead effectively   [more]

Networking skillsviews:  307

Training to improve networking skills to succeed at the workplace   [more]

Effective Communication Skillsviews:  261

Training to provide you with the communication skills required to succeed in the competitive corporate world   [more]

Critical Thinking Skillsviews:  327

Training to sharpen critical thinking skills for better performance at work   [more]

Sales Trainingviews:  220

Training to help individuals become better at the act of selling a product or service   [more]

AutoCadviews:  275

AutoCad is a software application for computer aided design (CAD) and drafting   [more]

View More

Master of Geographic Information Science and Systemsviews:  118

no description   [more]

Master of Science in Managementviews:  111

Master of Science in Management, abbreviated MSc or MSM, is a Master of Science academic degree that is common throughout the United States and Europe. It is similar to the MBA degree, and often requires a dissertation (thesis) before a graduate ...   [more]

Bachelor of Divinityviews:  214

Students examine the Bible and have the opportunity to gain skills for leading a congregation. Within the degree program, there are usually a number of concentration areas available, such as worship, missionary work, family ministries and pastora ...   [more]

Bachelor of Fine Artsviews:  165

Bachelor of Fine Arts (BFA) is the standard undergraduate degree for students in the United States and Canada seeking a professional education in the visual or performing arts. In some countries such a degree is called a Bachelor of Creative Arts ...   [more]

Doctor of Liberal Studiesviews:  105

no description   [more]

Master of Commerceviews:  187

Master of Commerce (MCom or MComm; sometimes Magister Commercii) is a postgraduate Masters Degree focusing on commerce-, management- and economics-related subjects. Like the undergraduate Bachelor of Commerce, the degree is offered in Commonwealt ...   [more]

Master of Health Scienceviews:  106

The Master of Health Science (MHS) degree is a specialized master’s degree. Depending on the department and specific area of study, the MHS degree provides opportunities for advanced study and research (academic MHS programs) or prepares individu ...   [more]

Master of Science in Transportation Managementviews:  108

no description   [more]

Master of Mathematical Financeviews:  147

A masters degree in quantitative finance concerns the application of mathematical methods to the solution of problems in financial economics. There are several like-titled degrees which may further focus on financial engineering, financial risk m ...   [more]

Master of Science in Information Systemsviews:  128

The Master of Science in Information Systems (MSIS), Master of Science in Management Information Systems (MSMIS) is a specialized master's degree program usually offered in a University's College of Business. The MSIS degree is designed for those ...   [more]

Master of Arts in War Studiesviews:  146

no description   [more]

Master of Engineeringviews:  128

A Master of Engineering (Magister in Ingeniaria) (abbreviated M.Eng., ME or MEng) or Master of Technology (abbreviated M.Tech. or MTech) or Master of Science in Engineering (abbreviated M.Sc. Eng., M.Sc.(Eng), M.Sc. Engg, MSc(Engg), etc.), can be ...   [more]

Master of Public Administrationviews:  108

The Master of Public Administration (MPA) is a professional post-graduate degree in Public Administration. The MPA program prepares individuals to serve as managers in the executive arm of local, state/provincial, and federal/national government, ...   [more]

Doctor of Chiropracticviews:  122

no description   [more]

Bachelor of Musicviews:  163

no description   [more]

Master of Science in Behavioral Scienceviews:  147

Individuals interested in studying the actions and interactions of other people may want a career as a behavioral scientist. This course offers an introduction to the principles of social and behavioral science and what it means to work in the fi ...   [more]

Bachelor of Science in Microbiologyviews:  151

no description   [more]

Master of Jurisprudenceviews:  144

Masters of Jurisprudence (M.J. or M.Jur) is sometimes used as an alternative name for both Master of Laws and Master of Studies in Law. It also refers to masters-level courses concentraing on legal theory, in particular the philosophy of law and ...   [more]

Master of Social Workviews:  173

The Master of Social Work (MSW) is a master's degree in social work and especiality of sociology. In the United States, MSW degrees must be received from a graduate school that has been approved by the Council on Social Work Education (CSWE). The ...   [more]

Bachelor of Science in Environmental Engineeringviews:  130

no description   [more]

View More

Graphs

Most Viewed Postions, Trainings and Degerees